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Abesifazane abamise izandla phezulu ukuze bazivikela

Yini udlame olubhekiswe kwabobulili obuthile?

Udlame olubhekiswe kwabobulili obuthile (GBV) luyinkinga ejulile eNingizimu Afrika. Kaningi, uma sibona izindaba, kuba nombiko wowesifazane oselahlekile noma osebulewe ngenxa yokuhlukunyezwa kwabesifazane

I-Africa Check yabika ukuthi phakathi kuka-Ephreli noDisemba 2016, amaphoyisa aqopha izehlakalo zokubulawa kwabantu abayizi-14,333. Kuleli nani, abayi-1,713 abesifazane. Ngokubukwa kwalolu lwazi, “okungenani uhhafu walaba [ababulewe] bafa ezandleni zabalingani babo abathandana nabo.”

I-GBV yitemu elisetshenziselwa ukuchaza udlame oluqondiswe kumuntu wobulili obuthile. Lolu dlame lubandakanya ukuhlukunyezwa ngokwamagama, ngokwasemphefumulweni, ngokocansi, ngokushaya, nangokomqondo. Yize noma bobubili ubulili abesifazane nabesilisa bebhekana ne-GBV, izibalo eNingizimu Afrika zikhomba ukuthi izisulu eziningi zingabesifazane namantombazane.

Amagama afana nokuthi ‘udlame olubhekiswe kwabesifazane’ kanye nokuthi ‘udlame olubhekiswe kwabobulili obuthile’ avame ukusetshenziswa ukuchaza into efanayo njengoba izibalo zikhomba ukuthi udlame olubhekiswe kwabesifazane behlukunyezwa abesilisa yilo oludlangile. Noma kunjalo, uma sisebenzisa itemu elithi ‘olubhekiswe kwabobulili obuthile,’ kugqamisa ukuthi lolu hlobo lodlame lusekelwe ngokuvamile emandleni angalingani phakathi kwabesifazane nabesilisa.

 

Kunezizathu eziningana zokuthi abenzi bokubi bakhethe ukusebenzisa udlame kwabobulili obuthile, futhi empeleni ayikho indlela elula yokuphendula lo mbuzo. Ezinye zalezi zehlakalo zenzeka phakathi kwabashadikazi noma ebudlelwaneni bothando lapho, ngenxa yezinkolelo nangenxa yamasiko, indoda yaziwa njengonamandla futhi ongalawula owesifazane. Ngakolunye uhlangothi, owesifazane uthathwa njengothobekile nongenamandla, oncike emyenini wakhe ukuba amhlinzeke ngezidingongqangi zakhe. Esinye isizathu esingabangela i-GBV kuba yilapho umuntu ekhulele ekhaya elinodlame nokuhlukumeza bese kuyena indaba yodlame ekhaya iba yinto ‘ejwayelekile’, ngenxa yalokho alusebenzise njengesisombululo nendlela yokuxhumana nabantu uma esemdala.

Umbiko ovela kwabe-Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSRV) uveze ukuthi ukukhula ngaphandle kukababa, noma ubaba ongakhombisi ukuba yisibonelo esihle ekhaya nako kungadala ukuthi umuntu akhule abe nodlame ebudaleni bakhe.

 

I-GBV ibonakala ngezindlela eziningi. Izisulu zodlame olubhekiswe kwabobulili obuthile zingazithola zinokuhlukumezeka ngokocansi, ngamazwi, ngokomoya noma ngokwezimali kulabo abayimbangela yokuhlukumezeka kwabo. Lolu hlobo lokuhlukumezeka ngokuvamile lwenziwa umuntu asuke emazi lowo wesifazane mhlawumbe ilungu lomndeni noma isoka noma-ke umyeni wakhe.

 

Lokhu kulapho isoka noma umyeni ehlukumeza isisulu ngodlame futhi lolu uhlobo olujwayeleke kakhulu ezweni. Lokhu kwenzeka ngohlobo lokunukubeza ngokocansi nokushaya. Esikhathini esiningi, izisulu kungenzeka zingazi ukuthi lokhu okwenzekayo ukuhlukunyezwa. Thola ukuthi zithini izimpawu zokuhlukunyezwa bese uthola usizo uma uzibona empilweni yakho lezi zimpawu ezibalwe kuleli khasi.

 

Lapha kulapho umlingani okunguyena ongaphezulu elawula ukufinyelela komunye umlingani izimpahla kanye nokusebenzisa izimali.  Esikhathini esiningi lokhu kwenzeka uma indoda ingafuni umkayo aye kosebenza bese yenza imizamo yokumbusa noma imncishe imali yakhe owesifazane.

 

Ukuhlukumeza ngokomphefumulo kwenzeka ngokuhlasela ngamazwi. Ukubiza ngamagama angathandwa, ukuthuka ngokuthunaza, kanjalo nokugxeka, ukuphoxa nokuhlaza umlingani. Lezi zenzo zingathikameza ukuzazi komuntu, ukuqiniseka ngobuyena kanjalo nokuzethemba kwakhe umuntu (Ludsin & Vetten 2005).

 

Lolu hlobo lodlame lwenziwa yilungu lomndeni, ahlekisana naye noma ashade naye futhi lungabandakanya nezingane. Kungaba ngokwesabisa ukulimaza, ukubhambabula noma ukunukubeza ngokocansi.

 

Inhlangano Yomhlaba Yezempilo ichaza ukuhlukumeza ngokocansi njenganoma yisiphi isenzo socansi, amazwi angamukelekile angokocansi noma ukubelesela ngezicelo zocansi noma ukuzama ukuthola ucansi kulowo muntu yena engafuni. Labo abahlukumeza ngokocansi kungaba abantu obaziyo, amalungu omndeni, abantu obethembayo noma abantu ongabazi.

 

Sinikela nge-R1 ngebhokisi ngalinye letiye leJoko nokubalelwa ezigidini zamarandi ezi-5 njalo ngonyaka ezinhlanganweni ezingenzi-nzuzo, i-POWA (Abantu Abalwa Nokuhlukunyezwa Kwabesifazane). Le nhlangano iyisishoshovu esinamandla kwezamalungelo abesifazane futhi ihlinzeka ngendawo yokuhlala, izeluleko zezomthetho nokwelulelwa kwabayizisulu zokuhlukunyezwa. Ngokubambisana sihlose ukusiza ukwakha izindawo eziphephile lapho izisulu zodlame lwasemakhaya zingaqala ukuvuleleka zikhulume futhingaleyo ndlela ziqede nya udlame nokuhlukunyezwa.

Uma nawe usebudlelwaneni lapho uhlukunyezwa khona noma kukhona umuntu omaziyo okulesi simo, yazi ukuthi awuwedwa. Lukhona usizo ongaluthola la ngaphandle. Thintana nenhlangano eseduze nawe.